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Phenotype submission - Acute Respiratory Failure

Cohort Definition Name: Acute Respiratory Failure
Contributor name: Andreas Weinberger Rosen
Contributor OrcId: 0000-0001-9990-8155
Logic Description: First event of acute respiratory failure
Recommended study application: exposure, outcome, indication
Assertion statement: This cohort definition was executed on at least one real person-level observational health data source and resulted in a cohort with at least 1 person.
Submitted cohort definition: Acute respiratory failure.txt.txt (1.2 KB)

Target Clinical Description

Acute respiratory failure is a critical condition characterized by the lungs’ inability to effectively exchange gases, leading to either hypoxia, hypercapnia, or both. This failure may result from direct pulmonary conditions or as a consequence of systemic illnesses affecting lung function. The severity can range from mild to life-threatening, requiring prompt recognition and treatment.

Presentation of Acute Respiratory Failure

Common presentations for acute respiratory failure:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid breathing
  • Cyanosis
  • Altered mental status
  • Increased heart rate
  • Fatigue

Some patients may present asymptomatically or with mild symptoms that are uncovered during routine clinical evaluation or related medical investigations.

Acute respiratory failure can present as an emergency, requiring immediate intervention like mechanical ventilation or oxygen supplementation to maintain oxygen levels.
Assessment for Acute Respiratory Failure

Arterial blood gas analysis to assess oxygen and carbon dioxide levels
Chest X-ray or CT scan for visualization of lung condition
Pulmonary function tests for assessing lung mechanics
Blood tests for underlying causes like infection or metabolic imbalance

Differential Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Failure

* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Pneumonia
  • Sepsis

Treatment Plan for Acute Respiratory Failure

For immediate management, oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation may be necessary to ensure sufficient oxygenation and ventilation. Supportive treatments like intravenous fluids, electrolyte correction, and treating the underlying cause are standard. Pharmacological interventions like bronchodilators or anti-inflammatory medications might be considered.
Prognosis for Acute Respiratory Failure

The prognosis for acute respiratory failure is highly variable and depends on the underlying cause, the patient’s overall health, and how quickly treatment is initiated. Timely and appropriate intervention can significantly improve outcomes, whereas delays or complications can lead to a severe decline in the patient’s condition, including the risk of death.

Assignment for Peer Review:
Peer review of the phenotype would be more than welcome

Imported to the OHDSI Phenotype Library. It may be expected to be found with id = 802 in the next release. Thank you